First aid is the immediate care you provide to a care receiver when a care receiver is suddenly ill or injured, before doctors and paramedics can arrive on the scene. Often, it can be the difference between life and death. Or between serious injury and a manageable one.
The aim of primary survey is to rapidly identify and manage any life-threatening conditions a casualty may have using the following 6 steps (DRSABC):
DANGER: Check for any danger in the immediate environment and find out the mechanism of injury as this may helps to identify the extent of injuries.
RESPONSE: Check care receiver’s responsiveness by asking, “Hello, hello, are you ok?” and tapping or pressing their shoulders if necessary.
SHOUT: Get Help and call 995 for emergency medical services. !”,
AED: Fetch an Automated Electric Defibrillator (AED).
BREATHING: Look for normal breathing.
CHEST COMPRESSIONS: If there’s no breathing, start CPR by performing continuous chest compressions and apply an AED.
An RBS is a quick head to toe examination of the body to look for and manage any external bleeding and deformities at (performed in sequence):
Arrest any bleeding, cover wounds and immobilize fractures found.
The secondary survey is used after a primary survey has been done and where the care receiver is not in any immediate danger. Pass over the information collected to the paramedic who are taking over the care of the care receiver.
While waiting for the ambulance:
What if you want to provide first aid to those in distress but you don’t know where and who they are? There’s an app for that!
The myResponder App from the Singapore Civil Defence Force (SCDF) alerts you to medical and fire emergencies within 400m, highlights nearby AEDs and also lets you call 995 from the app.
Download the myResponder app at https://apps.apple.com/sg/app/myresponder/id983494391 or https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=sg.gov.scdf.RescuerApp
Article reviewed by David Tay, Senior Principal Educator (Nursing and Prehospital Care), HMI Institute.